Loss and Damage (L&D) refers to climate impacts that occur despite mitigation and adaptation. Vulnerable developing states and civil society actors have campaigned for the inclusion of L&D in the international climate regime since the early 1990s, framing it as an issue of climate justice. In particular, two justice-oriented demands have been central in L&D negotiations – the institutionalisation of L&D beyond adaptation and compensation and liability. Focusing on how these demands have been framed to challenge inequality, this dissertation examines the integration of counter-hegemonic frames within the international climate regime along recognition and distributive justice dimensions. This article argues that counter-hegemonic frames are more likely to be recognised in formal regime decisions while distributive justice demands that seek to transform unequal power relations are stripped of their subversive potential. Furthermore, the non-integration of distributive justice highlights the structural constraints faced by counter-hegemonic actors within the dominant neoliberal structure of the regime.